Odin is a powerful figurehead in Norse mythology. The deity also called the Allfather, ruled over the nine realms with the help of his trusted raven companions. Indeed, Odin is rarely seen without a bird perched on each shoulder.
Odin is often depicted with ravens because he was famous for having two raven companions, Huginn and Muninn. Today, these birds are symbolic of his wisdom, cleverness, and love of war. In Norse mythology, he used them to gain information about the nine realms.
Ravens’ close association with the more powerful god in the Norse pantheon made the birds a potent image that inspired reverence and fear within the Scandinavian people. This article examines Huginn and Muninn’s history and explores ravens’ symbolism and impact at large.
Huginn and Muninn: Thought and Memory
Odin carries more weight and significance than any other Norse god. The powerful deity reigns over many things, including:
- The gallows
Odin’s two raven companions, Huginn and Muninn, help him shoulder that responsibility. That’s why most images of the god depict him with his two companions. Often, the birds will be on his shoulders; at other times, they’ll be near his feet or perched on his spear or head.
Huginn and Muninn play a crucial role in Norse mythology, first appearing in print in the 13th century in the Poetic Edda. This tome is a collection of poetry culled from earlier sources. 
According to the Edda, the ravens fly through the nine realms each morning to gather information and report to Odin.
Odin is celebrated for his intelligence and insight, and ravens are extremely clever feathered accomplices.
Huginn and Muninn represent wisdom and knowledge in a very literal sense. Even the birds’ names suggest their functions. According to scholars and all sources on Norse mythology, “Huginn” is the old Norse word for “thought,” while “Muninn” means “memory.” 
Huginn and Muninn’s names suggest a more profound knowledge than mere birds usually possess. There’s an emotional intelligence associated with thought and memory, implying the ravens provide spiritual insight as well as literal, physical information. Norse mythology often viewed ravens as birds of prophecy.
Odin’s birds keep him informed and provide counsel. They travel throughout the nine realms, making Odin functionally omniscient.
Huginn and Muninn and Odin
The three unique Norse characters have a very distinctive and codependent relationship, so much so that one of Odin’s other kennings is the Raven God.
Rituals to Odin often involved human or animal sacrifice. Participants believed that a raven appearing after the ritual meant Odin accepted the sacrifice, showing how closely the birds were bound to Odin in the popular Norse consciousness.
Odin’s raven connection defined him across disciplines, from religion to literature. The Eddic poem “Grimnismal” discusses Odin’s relationship with Huginn and Muninn:
“Huginn and Muninn
Fy every day
Overall the world;
I worry for Hugin
That he might not return,
But I worry more for Munin.” 
One may note the different spellings of the birds’ names. These are not misspellings. Instead, various translations of Norse texts use different spellings – and even different words, such as Woden for Odin – for characters and events.
Huginn and Munnin as an Extension of Odin
Some Norse scholars believe that Huginn and Munnin weren’t only pets and helpers but that they were extensions of the All-father and not entirely separate entities.
While they were physically distinct, the birds were manifestations of his personality, providing him with vision and knowledge beyond his physical limitations. They were simultaneously tools, limbs, and allies, prepared to do Odin’s dirty work.
Odin’s fear of losing his beloved pets and advisors suggests a vulnerability seldom associated with the god of war. Whether Huginn and Muninn were trusted friends and advisors, extra limbs, or metaphors for Odin’s mind and soul, his concern that they might fly away and never return indicates fallibility and possibly submerged madness.
Huginn and Muninn work in conjunction with Geri and Freki. Geri and Freki are Odin’s wolf companions. If Huginn and Muninn are the memory, thoughts, and eyes of the operation and Odin the intellect, Geri and Freki are the muscles. 
The three components worked together to create a cohesive whole.
Ravens, War, and Carnage
While Odin may be wise, he’s also bloodthirsty and vicious. Norse mythology views ravens as both clever and war-like birds.
Because ravens are scavengers that feast on carrion, the birds often hover over battlefields, waiting for their next meal.
Many warriors sacrificed enemies to the ravens’ hungry beaks.
In this regard, ravens, in general, and these two ravens specifically, help fulfill Odin’s other function as a god of war and collector of great warriors. Hugin is more widely viewed as the battle bird. Some referred to wars as “Hugin’s Feast” and soldiers as the “reddeners of Hugin’s claws.” 
Fallen warriors were raven food; the defeated fed Muninn and Huginn’s insatiable hunger, mimicking Odin’s lust for war.
Every fallen soldier served as a meal for Muninn and Huginn and also a sacrifice to Odin. Odin, also known as the Raven Sacrifice God, determines life and death in battles. Odin, being of a war-like mindset, chose pets who reveled in bloodshed as profoundly as he did.
Ravens and the Valkyries
Odin’s association with ravens isn’t limited strictly to Muninn and Huginn. Instead, the god has a more general connection to all ravens.
In Norse mythology, Valhalla is an opulent hall overseen by Odin, where combat fatalities go after they die. The Valkyries who led fallen warriors to Valhalla are often depicted as ravens, leading the chosen souls to Odin.
Once again, the birds serve at the pleasure of Odin.
Ravens in Norse Art and Images
Ravens are potent symbols of war and wisdom in Norse art. The birds’ connection to Odin and association with war made their visages inspire fear and awe in observers. The Norse featured ravens prominently in art and battle flags.
Ravens often adorned battle flags and banners. Their connection to Odin, war, and death made them a powerful tool for inspiring fear and intimidating the enemy.
The birds show up on many Norse artifacts and relics.
The hrafnsmerki banner, favored by kings and jarls, prominently featured ravens. These flags dominated the 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries. 
Norse jewelry often featured ravens. The wearers hoped the birds’ images would bring them wisdom, knowledge, and foresight.