Alpine skiing is the most popular version of skiing that we know today. Its popularity along the Alpine circuit and in America makes Alpine skiing the most recognizable form of the sport. However, this is only one type, and some other countries prefer their versions of the sport.
Nordic skiing is a form of skiing that first became popular in Nordic countries. At the winter Olympics, Nordic skiing refers to four distinct types of skiing: ski jumping, biathlon, cross-country skiing, and Nordic combined.
This article will explain how Nordic skiing differs from the more popular version of the sport, and describe each of the four Nordic ski disciplines. The article will also provide an overview of the sport’s history and explain why its dominated by Norwegian athletes.
What Makes Nordic Skiing Unique?
Nordic skiing involves a distinct style and requires a grasp of specific skills that differ from Alpine skiing.
Nordic skiing is unique due to the goals of the sport, the way the competition is structured, and how competitors are evaluated. Nordic skiing uses flatter slopes than Alpine skiing, includes jumping competitions, and has lighter and more flexible gear.
Differences in Style, Goals, and Competitive Evaluation
The two most popular types of Nordic skiing are cross-country skiing and ski jumping. 
Cross-country skiing takes place over a flat landscape and evaluates competitors based on the time they take to complete a race. Ski jumping, on the other hand, involves skiing down a ramp and trying to jump as far as possible using the momentum you’ve built up. Skiers are evaluated based on the distance they cover in their jumps, their jump technique, and a few other factors.
Alpine skiing, on the other hand, involves skiing downhill at high speeds in a race to the finish line. It evaluates competitors based on the time they take to reach the finish line at the bottom of the slope.
So, while Nordic and Alpine skiing both evaluate skiers based on time, some Nordic skiing disciplines also involve additional measures of evaluation, like the distance covered in the case of ski jumping. Biathlon events also involve shooting, which will be covered later in this article.
Moreover, even when speed and reaching the finish line first is the goal, the skills needed to be the fastest are different in each sport.
Differences in Skill and Exertion
The downhill movement of skiers in alpine skiing plays a significant role in generating speed. Competitive alpine skiers need to navigate complicated slopes while ensuring they don’t slow down. However, they are still working with gravity instead of against it.
Ski jumpers also use gravity, but the take-off and landing aspects of their jump require a different set of skills. Moreover, the jump technique is also an important factor when keeping score.
Cross-country skiing is actually more intense from a cardiovascular perspective, as skiers need to generate their own forward momentum in the face of resistance.  In this sense, cross-country skiing is a more demanding and strenuous sport.
Differences in Ski Gear
The obvious differences in Alpine and Nordic skiing disciplines have resulted in the development of specific gear for each sport. The difference in the types of skis, boots, and bindings are significant enough for the sports to be regarded as widely different.
Alpine skis are short, wide, and rigid, while skis used in Nordic sports are longer, more slender, and more flexible.  Most Alpine skis have metal edges for durability, while Nordic skis come with fiberglass edges for safety and to ensure that they’re light.
As such, Alpine skis are designed to be robust while remaining aerodynamic, while Nordic skis are built to be light and flexible. So, it’s no surprise that Alpine ski boots are heavier and more rigid. In contrast, Nordic ski boots are lightweight and soft, and typically have much shorter tops than Alpine ski boots.
Finally, Alpine ski boots fix onto the skis along the entire length of the boot. Nordic ski boots, on the other hand, are only attached at the toes. This setup gives the heel greater freedom of movement, allowing a skier to generate more force to move across flat terrain.
The History of Nordic Skiing
Skiing has a history that dates back thousands of years, and predates the invention of the wheel in some cultures. The earliest reference of skiing in the Scandinavian region goes back to around the 4th century BCE.  In fact, the word “ski” originates from the ancient Norse language and can be translated as “staff of wood.” 
The modern sport of Nordic skiing as we know it is of recent origin and came around in the mid-18th century CE. It was a result of competitive games held by the Norwegian armed forces to keep soldiers prepared for harsh environmental conditions. This origin explains a sport as strange as the biathlon, which involves shooting while skiing.
Nordic skiing has been an Olympic sport since the first Winter Olympics in 1924. It’s only later on, with the rise of ski resorts, chair lifts, metal skis, and plastic boots, that Nordic skiing was overshadowed by the Alpine version.
The Different Nordic Skiing Disciplines
As explained earlier in this article, the main disciplines of Nordic skiing include:
- Cross-Country Skiing: Involves skiing across flat terrain with the objective of finishing the race in record time. In most cases, competitors race against the clock and don’t start at the same time.
- Ski-jumping: Competitors ski down a ramp and launch themselves into the air. The winner is decided based on two rounds of jumps rated on several factors. 
- Nordic Combined: Competitors face off in a cross-country race based on their ski jump score. The skier with the longest jump starts first, with each successive competitor following after. 
- Biathlon: A cross-country ski race interrupted by bouts of target-shooting with a .22 rifle that competitors carry on their backs. 
The Norwegian Dominance of Nordic Skiing
Nothing screams Norway like Nordic skiing, apart from death metal, perhaps. Not only did the Norwegians invent the sport and hold its first competition, but they’ve also won more Olympic medals in the Nordic skiing disciplines than any other country. 
Norwegians like to say they’re a people born on skis, as skiing is a central part of Norwegian culture. Today, there are thousands of ski clubs in the Scandinavian countries, and competitions are avidly followed on television.